Naidu Rayapati

Naidu Rayapati

Professor, VirologyDirector, Prosser Irrigated Agriculture Research and Extension Center 509-786-9215 Hamilton Hall

Research Specialty and Interests

Virus diseases of horticultural, vegetable and food crops.  Virus characterization, diagnostics, plant-virus-vector interactions, development of integrated crop improvement strategies, virus diseases in international agriculture and capacity building in developing countries.  The current focus is on virus diseases of grapevines and vegetables (pdf). 

Professional Experience and Activities


  • Professor, Department of Plant Pathology, 2018-Present 
  • Associate Professor, Department of Plant Pathology, 2011-2018 
  • Assistant Professor, Department of Plant Pathology, 2004-2011 
  • Research Associate, The University of Georgia, Athens, 1999-2004 
  • Consultant Virologist, Crop Protection Program, Department For International Development, United Kingdom, 1988-1999 
  • Scientist, Senior Scientist (Virology), Crop Protection Program, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), India/Malawi, 1992-1998
  • Post-Doctoral Research Fellow, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, 1989-1992 
  • Post-Doctoral Fellow, ICRISAT, India, 1987-1989 


  1. Member, Annual Meeting Board, the American Phytopathological Society (2013-2019). 
  2. Chair (2014) and Vice-Chair (2013), Plant Pathogen and Disease Detection Committee of the American Phytopathological Society. 
  3. Associate Editor, Phytopathology (2011-2013) 
  4. Chair (2010) and Vice-Chair (2009), Virology Committee of the American Phytopathological Society. 
  5. Member, Virology Committee (2005-Present), Plant Pathogen and Disease Detection Committee (2010-Present) and Vector-Pathogen Complexes Committee (2011-Present) of the American Phytopathological Society. 
  6. Technical Committee Member, IPM CRSP (USAID) (2006-2009). 

Awards, Honors, and Memberships


  1. CAHNRS Land Grant Mission Award (2020).   
  2. Honoree, WSU’s Top Industry Engaged Researchers (2017).   
  3. International IPM Excellence Team Award, The 6th International IPM Symposium (2009).  
  4. International Service Award, American Phytopathological Society (2007). 


  1. Member, The American Phytopathological Society 
  2. Member, The American Society for Virology 
  3. Member, American Society for Enology and Viticulture 
  4. Member, The American Entomological Society 


Research articles  

Please see my Google Scholar Profile for a complete list.

Full-length journal articles: 

  1. Donda, B.P., Kesoju, S.R., Arnold, K., McRoberts, N. and Naidu, R.A. 2022. Spatio-Temporal Spread of Grapevine Leafroll Disease in Washington State Vineyards. Plant Disease (accept with revision).  
  2. Das, S., Porter, L.D., Ma, Y., Coyne, C.J., Chaves-Cordoba, B. and Naidu, R.A. 2022. Resistance in lentil (Lens culinaris) genetic resources to the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum). Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata (in press).  
  3. Gao, Z., Khot, L.R., Naidu, R.A. and Zhang, Q. 2020. Early detection of grapevine leafroll disease in a red-berried wine grape cultivar using hyperspectral imaging. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 179:105807.  
  4. Adiputra, J., Jarugula, S. and Naidu, R.A. 2019. Intra-species recombination among strains of the ampelovirus Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 4. Virology Journal 16: 139.  
  5. Adegbola, R.O., Marshall, S.H., Batuman, O., Ullman, D.E., Gilbertson, R.L., Adkins, S. and Naidu, R.A. 2019. Sequence analysis of the medium and small RNAs of impatiens necrotic spot virus reveals segment reassortment but not recombination. Archives of Virology 164: 2829-2836.   
  6. Sinha, R., Khot, L.R., Rathnayake, A.P., Gao, Z. and Naidu, R.A. 2019. Visible-near infrared spectroradiometry-based detection of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 in a red-fruited wine grape cultivar. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 162: 165-173.  
  7. Hanh, T., Hoa, N.V., Muniappan, R., Amrine, J., Naidu, R.A., Gilbertson, R. and Sidhu, J. 2019. Integrated pest management of longan (Sapindales: Sapindaceae) in Vietnam. Journal of Integrated Pest Management 10: 1–10.  
  8. Jarugula, S., Gowda, S., Dawson, W.O. and Naidu, R.A. 2018. Development of infectious cDNA clones of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and analyses of the 5′ non-translated region for replication and virion formation. Virology 523: 89-99.   
  9. Adiputra, J., Kesoju, S.R., Naidu, R.A. 2018. The relative occurrence of Grapevine leafrollassociated virus 3 and Grapevine red blotch virus in Washington State vineyards. Plant Disease 102: 2129-2135.    
  10. Brannen, P.M., Deom, C.M., Alabi, O.J. and Naidu, R.A. 2018. Prevalence of viruses in commercial wine grape vineyards in Georgia. Plant Health Progress 19: 342-346.  
  11. Pandey, B., Naidu, R.A. and Grove, G.G. 2018. Next generation sequencing analysis of double-stranded RNAs from sweet cherry powdery mildew fungus Podosphaera prunicola. Journal of Plant Pathology 100: 435-446.  
  12. Pandey, B., Naidu, R.A. and Grove, G.G. 2018. Detection and analysis of mycovirusrelated RNA viruses from grape powdery mildew fungus Erysiphe necator. Archives of Virology 163: 1019-1030.  
  13. Tantiwanich, Y., Chiemsombat, P., Naidu, R.A., and Adkins, S. 2018. Integrating local lesion assays with conventional RT-PCR for detection of interspecies tospovirus reassortants and mixed tospovirus infections. Plant Disease 102: 715-719.  
  14. Marshall, S.H., Adegbola, R.O., Adkins, S., and Naidu, R.A. 2017. An efficient and high-fidelity method for amplification, cloning and sequencing of complete tospovirus genomic RNA segments. Journal of Virological Methods 242: 22-26.   
  15. Szostek, S.A., Rodriguez, P., Sanchez, J., Adkins, S., and Naidu, R.A. 2017. Western flower thrips can transmit Tomato spotted wilt virus from virus-infected tomato fruits. Plant Health Progress 18: 1-6.  
  16. Donda, B. P., Jarugula, S., and Naidu, R. A. 2017. An analysis of the complete genome sequence and subgenomicmRNAs reveals unique features of the ampelovirus, Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1. Phytopathology 107:1069-1079.   
  17. Poojari, S., Alabi, O.J., Okubara, P.A., and Naidu, R.A. 2016. SYBR® Green-based real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR for detection and discrimination of grapevine viruses. Journal of Virological Methods 235: 112–118.   
  18. Alabi, O.J., Casassa, L.F., Gutha, L.R., Larsen, R.C., Henick-Kling, T., Harbertson, J.F., and Naidu, R.A. 2016. Impacts of grapevine leafroll disease on fruit yield and grape and wine chemistry in a wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivar. PLoS ONE 11: e0149666.  
  19. Jones, T.J., Naidu, R.A., and Nita, M. 2015. Occurrence of Grapevine leafroll associated virus2, −3 and Grapevine fleck virus in Virginia, U.S.A., and factors affecting virus infected vines. European Journal of Plant Pathology 142: 209-222.  
  20. Alabi, O.J., Al Rwahnih, M., Mekuria, T., and Naidu, R.A. 2014. Genetic diversity of Grapevine virus A in Washington and California vineyards. Phytopathology 104:548-560.  
  21. Poojari, S., Alabi, O.J., and Naidu, R.A. 2013. Molecular characterization and impacts of a strain of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2 causing asymptomatic infection in a wine grape cultivar. Virology Journal 10:324.  
  22. Poojari, S., Alabi, O.J., Fofanov, V.Y., and Naidu, R.A. 2013. A leafhopper-transmissible DNA virus with novel evolutionary lineage in the family Geminiviridae implicated in grapevine redleaf disease by next-generation sequencing. PLoS ONE 8(6): e64194. (Correction: A leafhopper-transmissible DNA virus with novel evolutionary lineage in the family Geminiviridae implicated in grapevine redleaf disease by next-generation sequencing. PLoS ONE 11(1): e0147510, 2016).   
  23. Alabi, O.J., Poojari, S., Sarver, K., Martin, R.R., and Naidu, R.A. 2013. Complete genome sequence analysis of an American isolate of Grapevine virus E. Virus Genes 46:563–566.  
  24. Bahder, B.W., Naidu, R.A., Daane, K.M., Millar, J.G., and Walsh, D.B. 2013. Pheromone-based monitoring of Pseudococcus maritimus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) populations in Concord grape vineyards. Journal of Economic Entomology 106:482-490.   
  25. Bahder, B. W., Alabi, O.J., Poojari, S., Walsh, D. B., and Naidu, R. A. 2013. A survey for grapevine viruses in Washington State ‘Concord’ (Vitis x labruscana L.) vineyards.  Online. Plant Health Progress doi:10.1094/PHP-2013-0805-01-RS.   
  26. Eni, A.O., Lava Kumar, P., Asiedu, R., Alabi, O.J., Naidu, R.A., Hughes, J. d’A., and Rey, M.E.C. 2013. Characterization of Cucumber mosaic virus isolated from yam (Dioscorea spp.) in West Africa. African Journal of Biotechnology 12: 3472-3480.   
  27. Bahder, B. W., Poojari, S., Alabi, O.J., Naidu, R.A., and Walsh, D. B. 2013. Pseudococcus maritimus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and Parthenolecanium corni (Hemiptera: Coccidae) are capable of transmitting Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 between Vitis labruscana and Vitis vinifera. Environmental Entomology 42: 1292-1298.  
  28. Alabi, O.J., Zheng, Y., Jagadeeswaran, G., Sunkar, R., and Naidu, R.A. 2012. High-throughput sequence analysis of small RNAs in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) affected by grapevine leafroll disease. Molecular Plant Pathology 13: 1060-1076.   
  29. Alabi, O. J., Al Rwahnih, M., Karthikeyan, G., Poojari, S., Fuchs, M., Rowhani, A., and Naidu, R. A. 2011. Grapevineleafroll-associated virus 1 occurs as genetically diverse populations. Phytopathology 101: 1446-1456.  
  30. Lava Kumar, P., Hanna, R., Alabi, O.J., Soko, M.M., Oben, T.T., Vangu, G.H.P., and Naidu, R.A. 2011. Banana bunchy top virus in sub-Saharan Africa: investigations on virus distribution and diversity. Virus Research 159: 171-182.   
  31. Kunkalikar, S.R., Sudarsana, P., Bhanupriya M., Rajagopalan, P.A., Chen, T-C., Yeh, S- D., Naidu, R.A., Zehr, U.B., and Ravi, K.S. 2011. Importance and genetic diversity of vegetable-infecting tospoviruses in India. Phytopathology101: 367-376.   
  32. Gutha, L. R., Casassa, L.F., Harbertson, J.F., and Naidu, R.A. 2010. Modulation of flavonoid biosynthetic pathway genes and anthocyanins due to virus infection in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves. BMC Plant Biology 10: 187.  
  33. Jarugula, S., Gowda, S., Dawson, W.O., and Naidu, R.A. 2010. 3’-coterminal subgenomic RNAs and putative cis-acting elements of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 reveals ‘unique’ features of gene expression. Virology Journal 7: 180.  
  34. Jarugula, S., Alabi, O.J., Martin, R.R., and Naidu, R.A. 2010. Genetic variability of natural populations of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus-2 in Pacific Northwest vineyards. Phytopathology 100:698-707.8.   
  35. Alabi, O.J., Lavakumar, P., Mgbechi-Ezeri, J.U., and Naidu, R.A. 2010. Two new ‘legumoviruses’ (genus Begomovirus) naturally infecting soybean in Nigeria.  Archives of Virology 155:643–656.  
  36. Alabi, O.J., Martin, R.R., and Naidu, R.A. 2010. Sequence diversity, population genetics and potential recombination events in Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus in Pacific Northwest Vineyards. Journal of General Virology 91: 265-276. 

Review Articles

  1. Kuhn, J.H., Adkins, S., Agwanda, B. (multiple authors including Naidu, R.A.) et al., 2021. 2021 Taxonomic update of phylum Negarnaviricota (Riboviria: Orthornavirae), including the large orders Bunyavirales and Mononegavirales. Archives of Virology 166:3513-3566. 
  2. Kuhn, J.H., Adkins, S., Alioto, D. (multiple authors including Naidu, R.A.) et al., 2020. 2020 taxonomic update for phylum Negarnaviricota (Riboviria: Orthornavire, including the large orders Bunyavirales and Mononegavirales. Archives of Virology 165: 3023-3072. 
  3. Abudurexiti, A., Adkins, S., Alioto, D. (multiple authors including Naidu, R.A.) et al., 2019. Taxonomy of the order Bunyavirales: update 2019. Archives of Virology 164:1949-1965. 
  4. Jones, R. and Naidu, R.A. 2019. Global dimensions of plant virus diseases: Current status and future perspectives. Annual Review of Virology 6:387-409. 
  5. Maes, P., Adkins, S., Alkhovsky, S.V. (multiple authors in including Naidu, R.A.) et al. 2019. Taxonomy of the order Bunyavirales: second update 2018. Archives of Virology 164: 927-941.  
  6. Naidu, R.A., Maree, H.J., and Burger, J. 2015. Grapevine leafroll disease and associated viruses – A unique pathosystem. Annual Review of Phytopathology 53:613-634 
  7. Naidu, R.A., Rowhani, A., Fuchs, M., Golino, D., and Martelli, G.P. 2014. Grapevine leafroll: A complex viral disease affecting a high-value fruit crop. Plant Disease 98:1172-1185. 
  8. Maree, H.J., Almeida, R.P., Bester, R., Chooi, K., Cohen, D., Dolja, V.V., Fuchs, M.F., Golino, D.A., Jooste, A.E., Martelli, G.P., Naidu, R.A., Rowhani, A., Saldarelli, P., and Burger, J. 2013. Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3. Front. Microbiol. 4:82.  
  9. Alabi, O. J., Kumar, P. L., and Naidu, R. A. 2011. Cassava mosaic disease: A curse to food security in Sub-Saharan Africa. Online. APSnet Features. doi:10.1094/APSnetFeature-2011-0701. 

Disease Notes/Briefs:

  1. Mitra, A., Jarugula, S., Hoheisel, G. and Naidu, R.A. 2021. First report of Tobacco ringspot virus in highbush blueberry in Washington State. Plant Disease 105:2739. 
  2. Chingandu, N., Jarugula, S., Adiputra, J., Bagewadi, B., Adegbola, R., Thammina, C. and Naidu, R.A. 2021. First report of grapevine rupestris vein feathering virus in grapevines from Washington State. Plant Disease 105:717. 
  3. Jarugula, S., Chingandu, N., Adiputra, J., Bagewadi, B., Adegbola, R., Thammina, C. and Naidu, R.A. 2021. First Report of grapevine red globe virus in grapevines in Washington State. Plant Disease 105:717. 
  4. Adegbola, R.O., Kemerait, R.C., Adkins, S. and Naidu, R.A. 2019. Complete genome segment sequences of tomato chlorotic spot virus from peanut in Haiti. Microbiology Resource Announcements 8: e00306-19. 
  5. Nagendran, K., Kumari, S., Rai, A.B., Manimurugan, C., Singh, B., Karthikeyan, G., and Naidu, R.A. 2018. First report of Peanut Bud Necrosis Virus infecting bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) in India. Plant Disease 102:690.  
  6. de Jensen, C.E., Badillo-Vargas, I.E., Frantz, G., Mellinger, H.C., Turechek, W.W., Hutton, S.F., Funderburk, J.E., Naidu, R.A., and Adkins, S. 2017. First report ofTomato chlorotic spot virusin the non-solanaceous weeds erect spiderling (Boerhavia erecta), asian spiderflower (Cleome viscosa), and sweet chili pepper (Capsicum chinense) in Puerto Rico. Plant Health Progress 18: 17-18. 
  7. Adegbola, R.O., Fulmer, A.M., Williams, B., Brenneman, T.B., Kemerait, R.C., Sheard, W., Woodward, J.E., Adkins, S., andNaidu, R.A. 2016. First report of the natural occurrence of Tomato chlorotic spot virus in peanuts in Haiti. Plant Disease 100: 1797. 
  8. Chikh Ali, M., Naidu, R.A., and Karasev, A.V.  2016. First report of Potato virus Y (PVY) strain PVYC associated with a tomato disease in Kenya. Plant Disease 100: 864.  
  9. Bagewadi, B. and Naidu, R.A. 2016. First report of Tomato yellow leaf curl Kanchanaburi virus in eggplant and tomato in Cambodia. Plant Disease 100: 233.  
  10. Walker, L., Bagewadi, B., Schultz, A., and Naidu, R.A. 2015. First report of Tobacco ringspot virus associated with fanleaf disease in a Washington State vineyard. Plant Disease 99:1286 
  11. Nagendran, K., Balaji, C.G., Mohankumar, S., Manoranjitham, S.K., Naidu, R.A., and Karthikeyan, G. 2015. First Report of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus in Snake Gourd (Trichosanthes cucumerina) in India. Plant Disease 99: 558. 
  12. Nagendran, K., Aravintharaj, R., Mohankumar, S., Manoranjitham, S.K., Naidu, R.A., and Karthikeyan, G. 2015. First Report of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus in Snake Gourd (Trichosanthes cucumerina) in India. Plant Disease 99:559. 
  13. Basawaraj, B., Hossain, Md. S., Fayad, A., and Naidu, R.A. 2015. First report of Cucumber mosaic virus from eggplant (Solanum melongena) in Bangladesh. Plant Disease 99:293. 
  14. Martinez, R.T., Poojari, S., Tolin, S.A., Cayetano, X., Naidu, R.A. 2014. First report of Tomato spotted wilt virus in peppers and tomato in Dominican Republic. Plant Disease 98: 163. 
  15. Damayanti, T.A., Alabi, O.J., Hidayat, S.H., Crosslin, J.M., and Naidu, R.A. 2014.  First report of Potato virus Y in Potato in West Java, Indonesia. Plant Disease 98: 287.  
  16. Poojari, S. and Naidu, R.A. 2013. First report of Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV) infecting basil (Ocimum basilicum) in the United States. Plant Disease 97: 850. 
  17. Alabi, O.J., Crosslin, J.M., Saidov, N., and Naidu, R.A. 2012. First report of Potato virus Y in Potato in Tajikistan. Plant Disease 96: 1074. 
  18. Kanuya, E., Clayton, L.A., Naidu, R.A., and Karasev, A.V. 2012.  First report of Grapevine fleck virus in Idaho wine grapes. Plant Disease 96: 1705. 
  19. Alabi, O.J., Saidov, N., Muniappan, R., and Naidu, R.A. 2012. First report of Iris yellow spot virus in onion in Tajikistan. New Disease Reports 26: 28.  
  20. Karthikeyan, G., Alabi, O.J., and Naidu, R.A. 2011. Occurrence of Grapevine leafroll- associated virus 1 in two ornamental grapevine cultivars in Washington State. Plant Disease 95: 613. 
  21. Naidu, R.A. and Mekuria, T.A. 2010. First report of Grapevine fleck virus from Washington vineyards. Plant Disease, 94: 784.  
  22. Mekuria, T.A. and Naidu, R.A. 2010. First report of grapevine virus sequences highly similar to Grapevine Syrah virus-1 from Washington vineyards. Plant Disease 94: 787. 
  23. Damayanti, T.A., Alabi, O.J., Rauf, A., and Naidu, R.A. 2010. The occurrence of Bean common mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus in yardlong beans in Indonesia. Plant Disease.94: 478. 

Book Chapters

  1. Naidu, R.A. Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1. In: Grapevine Viruses: Molecular Biology, Diagnostics and Management. Springer (Publication expected in August 2017). 
  2. Burger, J., Maree, H.J., Gouveia, P., and Naidu, R.A. Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3. In: Grapevine Viruses: Molecular Biology, Diagnostics and Management. Springer (Publication expected in August 2017). 
  3. Richards, K.E., Deom, C.M. and Naidu, R.A. 2005. Genus: Pecluvirus. In: Virus Taxonomy-Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses. Eds. C.M. Fauquet, M.A. Mayo, J. Maniloff, U. Desselberger and L.A. Ball. Elsevier Academic Press, New York. pp1039-1042. 

Extension Publications

  1. Naidu, R.A. 2022. Virus Diseases. In: Field Guide for Integrated Pest management in Pacific Northwest Vineyards – A Pacific Northwest Extension Publication (PNW644, 2nd Edition), pages 95-98, 105-106. 
  2. Naidu, R.A. 2021. Viruses of Grapevines.  In: 2021 Pest Management Guide for Grapes in Washington. EB0762 (Updated Annually), pages(pp. 50-53). 
  3. Naidu, R.A. 2021. Know your viruses. Good Fruit Grower September 2021, pages 32-33. 
  4. Naidu, R.A. Grafting wine grapes. Good Fruit Grower June 2017. Vol. 68, No. 11, pages 38-39. 
  5. Naidu, R.A., 2016. Grapevine viruses and clean plants. In: Vine to Wine: Successfully Establishing a Vineyard and Winery. Moyer, M.M. and G.A. Hoheisel (eds). WSU Extension Publication Washington State University. ( 
  6. Naidu, R.A. and Walsh, D. 2015. Is ‘grape virus tax’ hitting your pocketbook? Good Fruit Grower May 15, 2015. Vol. 66, No. 10, pages 10-11. 
  7. Moyer, M., Naidu, R.A., and Steigmeyer, R. 2015. Field guide to clean plants & quarantines for grapes in Washington State (English & Spanish versions). 43 pp.